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Updated PrimeShip-HULL for rule amendments
ClassNK’s PrimeShip-HULL (HCSR) Ver.5.0.0 incorporates the latest IACS Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers (CSR BC & OT) rule amendments. 16 Feb 2018
ClassNK support for IMO fuel consumption reporting
ClassNK Consulting Service Co Ltd has launched a support service for setting up a Data Collection Plan in order to support the Fuel Consumption Reporting system IMO Data Collection System (DCS). 12 Feb 2018
ClassNK certification for Sea Sentry wash water monitoring
A wash water monitoring system for ship exhaust gas cleaning manufactured by Chelsea Technologies, has achieved certification by ClassNK. 09 Jan 2018
ClassNK releases latest ‘Good Maintenance’ guide
ClassNK has released the latest version of its ‘Good Maintenance Onboard Ships’ guide. 07 Nov 2017
Updated ClassNK guidance for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems
ClassNK has released the second version of its Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems to help owners and operators meet tighter sulphur limits. 04 Sep 2017
ClassNK verifies first SE Asia ship recycler
ClassNK has verified its first SE Asia recycling facility paving the way for greener ship disposal across the region. 22 Aug 2017
ClassNK engine diagnostics for MOL duo
ClassNK Consulting Service’s next-generation diagnostic monitoring system is to be installed on a Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (MOL) ship duo. 20 Jul 2017
ClassNK approval for LNG bunker vessel
ClassNK has issued Approval in Principle (AIP) for a 7,500 cbm LNG bunkering vessel designed by Hanjin Heavy Industries & Construction Co Ltd. 25 Oct 2016
ClassNK releases new hull software
ClassNK has released the latest version of its design support software PrimeShip-HULL (HCSR) Ver.3.5.0. 04 Aug 2016
ClassNK identifies ULCS steel strength requirements
ClassNK has concluded that 8000 N/mm3/2 is the minimum required brittle crack arrest toughness for extremely thick brittle crack arrest steel plates of 100mm used in ultra-large container ships. 28 Jul 2016
K-Line seeks further fuel savings with ClassNK CMAX
K-line Ship Management has selected ClassNK Consulting Service’s machinery condition monitoring and automatic diagnostic system for use on one of its container vessels. 20 Jun 2016
ClassNK releases draft containership rule amendments
Classification society ClassNK has released draft amendments to its rules and guidance for containerships. 25 Nov 2015
170 million gt classed by NK
ClassNK claims to be the first classification society to surpass 170 million gt under class, following an official announcement from its Classification Committee. 29 Apr 2010
ClassNK releases new guidelines for OSVs
ClassNK has released new guidelines specifically for Offshore Support Vessels (OSV) and other workboats. 03 Sep 2010
ClassNK sets up office in Kolkata
ClassNK officially announced the opening of a new exclusive surveyor office in Kolkata, India. The new office is the seventh new office to be opened by the society in 2010, and becomes its sixth surveyor office in India. 13 Dec 2010
New class standards issued for tanker steel
Japanese classification society ClassNK says that it has developed, and now released, the first set of standards for the application of corrosion resistant steels to cargo tanks of oil tankers. 22 Dec 2010
ClassNK sets new record
ClassNK announced its final register statistics for 2010, revealing that nearly 20 million gross tons were added to the class society’s register this past year. 27 Jan 2011
World’s first guidelines on friction stir welding in shipbuilding
Classification society ClassNK has released the guidelines on the application of friction stir welding to the construction of commercial maritime vessels. 28 Jan 2011
First meeting of ClassNK technical committee
The first meeting of the ClassNK technical committee was held recently at the Industry Club of Japan in Tokyo. 08 Feb 2011
ClassNK and Panama celebrate milestone
ClassNK recently announced that at the end of 2010, the combined tonnage of Panamanian flagged vessels on the class society’s register had broken the 100 million gross ton barrier. 23 Feb 2011
Class society opens new Chinese office
ClassNK has officially announced the establishment of a new exclusive surveyor office in Shenzen, China, the 11th office it has opened in China, marking the continued growth of ClassNK’s presence in the Chinese market. 31 Mar 2011
ClassNK revises Class Rules
ClassNK has announced the release of the 2011 edition of the ClassNK Rules. 07 Apr 2011
First approval for cargo oil tank coating testing system
ClassNK says that it has provided the first class approval for a coating testing system to the Japanese Paint Inspection and Testing Association (JPIA), in line with the IMO’s performance standard for the protective coatings of crude oil tanks. 07 Apr 2011
ClassNK chairman wants class to lead on GHGs
ClassNK chairman and president Noboru Ueda has called for class societies to play a more central role in the maritime industry’s ongoing efforts to reduce maritime GHG emissions. 13 Apr 2011
ClassNK named top classification society
ClassNK was named the best classification society in Asia again Friday night when it received the “Classification Society Award” at the Seatrade Asia Awards held recently in Hong Kong. 21 Jun 2011
Japanese class society expands marine sector business
ClassNK has announced an agreement to establish a capital tie-up with Japan Marine Science, a maritime consulting firm involved in maritime IT development, analysis, training, and software systems. 27 Jun 2011
Bring Class into the 21st Century
Retiring IACS chairman Noboru Ueda of ClassNK says the association must play an expanded role in the future, to better meet the changing needs of the industry, and bring classification into the 21st century. 08 Jul 2011
New structure software version issued
ClassNK has released version 5.0 of its structural assessment software programs PrimeShip-HULL(Rules) and PrimeShip-HULL(DSA), which are in use by shipyards globally. 08 Jul 2011
New noise and vibration guidelines from ClassNK
ClassNK has released a new noise and vibration guideline for measuring and evaluating the noise and vibration on ships, in order to address demands for new standards for noise and vibration on commercial vessels. 29 Jul 2011
ClassNK opens first Russian office
ClassNK has officially opened its first exclusive surveyor office in St. Petersburg, Russia. The ceremony was hosted by ClassNK chairman and president and current IACS vice-chairman Noboru Ueda. 16 Sep 2011
ClassNK approves ECDIS course
ClassNK says it has issued its first approval for maritime training programmes to an ECDIS course offered by NYK Shipmanagement (NYKSM) of Singapore. 22 Sep 2011
ClassNK and NMRI examine damage stability
Classification Society ClassNK and Japan’s National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) have recently held an international workshop in Tokyo on risk-based assessment of ship safety. 21 Oct 2011
First NK-classed ship with special construction for liquefiable cargoes
Japanese class society ClassNK says that a new vessel is the first to receive approval from the Panama Maritime Authority in accordance with IMBSC Code part, governing carriage of cargoes which may liquefy. 31 Oct 2011
ClassNK recognised as RO by Norway flag
The Norwegian government has officially recognised ClassNK as a Recognized Organization (RO) which allows the Japanese classification society to perform surveys and issue certificates for Norwegian flagged vessels. 13 Nov 2011
New Class NK guidelines for SCR
ClassNK has released new guidelines for SCR systems and reductant agent supply systems. The new guidelines address the NOx emission regulations as amended by Annex VI of Marpol which entered into force on 1 July 2010. 15 Nov 2011
New consulting subsidiary for ClassNK
ClassNK has established a new wholly-owned subsidiary, known asClassNK Consulting Service, located in Tokyo. The new company is the Japanese classification society’s first ever subsidiary. 08 Dec 2011
ClassNK gains US authorisation for tonnage and load line measurement
USCG has entered into an agreement to delegate official certification to ClassNK in accordance with the International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships and the International Convention on Load Lines. 12 Dec 2011
ClassNK issues Tier III NOx certification
ClassNK has awarded its first Statement of Fact for Tier III nitrogen oxide (NOx) reductions to a marine diesel engine incorporating a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system. 29 Dec 2011
Approval for ballast tank coating system
ClassNK has awarded type approval for what it believes to be the first alternative coating system under PSPC for ballast tanks to a single coating system manufactured by Nippon Paint Marine Coatings. 05 Jan 2012
Class NK releases new free strength assessment software for container ships
ClassNK has released of a revised version, 2.5.0, of its direct strength assessment program for container carriers, PrimeShip-HULL (DSA)/Guideline for Containers. 05 Jan 2012
A good 2011 for Japanese class society
ClassNK has announced its final register statistics for 2011, revealing that almost 23 million gross tons were added to the class society’s register this past year. 24 Jan 2012
‘K’ Line’s ECDIS training course gets approval from ClassNK
ClassNK has announced that it had issued generic training course approval to an electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) course offered by K Line Maritime Academy (Philippine), a group company of Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha. 30 Jan 2012
ClassNK issues guidelines for gas fuel
ClassNK has issued new guidelines, outlining requirements for the design of natural gas fuelled ships and providing information on key issues including bunkering, hull structure, fire safety, and explosion prevention. 21 Feb 2012
Class societies cooperate in Indonesia
ClassNK has entered into an agreement with Indonesian classification society, Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia Persero (BKI), to focus on deepening cooperation between the two societies in a range of maritime sectors. 27 Feb 2012
ClassNK announces boardroom reorganisation
Japanese ship classification society Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK) has announced changes to its executive board of directors effective 22 March 2012. 22 Mar 2012
ClassNK approves friction stir welding
ClassNK says that it has issued approval for a friction stir welding (FSW) method using a floating bobbin tool to IHI Corporation, certifying that this new method complies with ClassNK’s 'Guidelines on Friction Stir Welding'. 27 Mar 2012
ClassNK updates class rules and guidance for steel ships
ClassNK has announced the release of the 2012 edition of the ‘Rules and Guidance for the Survey and Construction of Steel Ships’. 19 Apr 2012
SEEMP package from NAPA and ClassNK
Japanese classification society ClassNK and Finnish marine software house NAPA are to collaborate on a comprehensive solution for realising the SEEMP requirements, which are due to come into force in January 2013. 09 May 2012
ClassNK reaches historic world milestone
Classification society, ClassNK, has announced that its register has hit the 200 million gross tonne mark after steadily accelerating over the years. 29 May 2012
Amends, revisions and upgrades from ClassNK
There is plenty of news from ClassNK this week including new amendments to rules, revised guidelines, updated software and news of an agreement to conduct statutory certifications on behalf of the Lithuanian Maritime Safety Administration. 19 Jun 2012
ClassNK releases harmonised Common Structural Rules software
ClassNK has released what it claims to be the world’s first software package for use with the new IACS Harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSR) for bulk carriers and oil tankers. 05 Jul 2012
ClassNK begins joint design research project with shipyards
ClassNK says it has started full scale ship tests to develop a feedback scheme on design for ship performance in actual seas in collaboration with Japanese companies Imabari Shipbuilding and Sayonas Shipbuilding. 13 Aug 2012
Moldova ends its reflagging of Iranian vessels
Following United Against Nuclear Iran's (UANI) shipping campaign, the Republic of Moldova has put an end to its reflagging of Iranian vessels. 08 Oct 2012
Evergreen’s training certified by ClassNK
Japanese class society ClassNK has certified several courses run by the Evergreen Seafarer Training Center (ESTC) in Taiwan. 03 Feb 2013
ADSS agreement
ClassNK has reached a preliminary agreement with two major shipping lines over the use of its As-built Drawings Storage Service (ADSS). 13 Jun 2013
Class NK expedites ‘MOL Comfort’ investigations after remaining part sinks
Japanese classification society ClassNK says that following the sinking of the fore part of the ‘MOL Comfort’, its casualty investigation team intends to expedite the investigation into the cause of the incident. 12 Jul 2013
New software for CSR assessment from ClassNK
Classification society ClassNK has announced the release of the latest versions of IACS Common Structural Rules (CSR) structural assessment software. 30 Aug 2013
‘MOL Comfort’ investigation taking longer than expected
ClassNK executive vice president Toshitomo Matsui has announced that the Tokyo-based classification society’s casualty analysis and investigation into the ‘MOL Comfort’ sinking will take longer than initially expected. 30 Aug 2013
MOL Comfort preliminary findings
The ClassNK Casualty Investigation Team has released preliminary findings and safety measures following the loss of the container vessel MOL Comfort. 05 Nov 2013
Industry teams up to advance structural safety
Class societies and software suppliers are working to ease the introduction of the harmonised common structural rules for tankers and bulk carriers, and there will be changes to come for container ships, says Wendy Laursen. 30 Jan 2014
ClassNK updates guidance for gas fuelled ships
Classification society ClassNK has released its second version of the ‘Guidelines for Gas Fuelled Ships’ based on the requirements for the design of natural gas fuelled ships. 12 Dec 2013
New tool for harmonised IACS rules aids designers
Classification society ClassNK has release a new version of its PrimeShip-Hull ship design support software, said to be the first such product that fully supports the IACS Common Structural Rules (harmonized CSR) for oil tankers and bulk carriers. 15 Feb 2014
Class society acquires maritime software house
Tokyo-based classification society ClassNK is to acquire the Finnish maritime software house NAPA, in a deal which is claimed to help improve safety and performance of the maritime industry as a whole. 18 Mar 2014
Fuel payers save more with advanced monitoring and optimisation solutions
With success or failure increasingly dependent upon it, key players in the maritime industry are working together to develop operational efficiency software with enhanced precision measuring capability: Esa Henttinen, vice president at NAPA for operations, reports on the sea trials of one such product: ClassNK-NAPA Green. 18 Mar 2014
“K” Line achieves nearly 4% fuel saving
ClassNK Napa Green, the operational optimisation software developed by Napa and ClassNK, has been reported to have achieved a fuel efficiency improvement of 3.9% onboard a “K” Line container ship. 10 Apr 2014
Free EEDI design support tool released by ClassNK
A new PrimeShip-Green software tool has been introduced by Tokyo-based classification society ClassNK to aid compliance with IMO requirements for EEDI. 15 Apr 2014
Class stepping up with solutions for increasing fuel efficiency
Wendy Laursen explains how, with CO2 emissions measurement on the IMO agenda, class is developing new solutions for fuel efficiency. 30 May 2014
New Rules for steel ships construction
Japanese based classification society, ClassNK has released its latest amendments to its Rules and Guidance for the Survey and Construction of Steel Ships. 01 Jul 2014
ClassNK in collaborative engine research
ClassNK is taking part in a joint project to research the development of condition-based engine monitoring systems for the Mitsui MAN B&W engine. 31 Jul 2014
CBM on the cloud
ClassNK and Daihatsu Diesel are to embark on a joint research project to research and tests extensibility of condition based monitoring and automatic diagnostics for auxiliary engines, using cloud technology. 28 Aug 2014
Chemical tanker features novel stainless steel cargo tanks
Japanese class society ClassNK reports that the first chemical tanker to use a combination of duplex stainless steel and stainless clad steel in the construction of its cargo tanks has now been delivered. 18 Nov 2014
ClassNK approves Niigata dual-fuel engine design
Japanese classification society ClassNK has granted design approval to the 28AHX-DF dual-fuel engine developed by Niigata Power Systems. 26 Nov 2014
USMRC and ClassNK collaborate on LNG R&D
The United States Maritime Resource Center (USMRC) and ClassNK are joining forces to carry out joint R&D on LNG – the first time such a partnership will work together on specialised training and research in North America. 10 Dec 2014
ClassNK continues to grow
According to Japanese classification society ClassNK, its register topped 230million gross tons for the first time at the end of November 2014. 16 Dec 2014
Laser-arc hybrid welding guidelines
Japanese classification society, ClassNK, has released an updated version of its guidance on laser-hybrid welding to build upon the original guidelines developed back in December 2009. 19 Jan 2015
ClassNK expert appointed TSCG chairman
ClassNK tanker expert, Hayato Suga, has been appointed as the chairman of the Tanker Structure Co-operative Forum (TSCF). 12 Dec 2013
ClassNK updates onboard maintenance checklists
ClassNK has released the latest version of its Good Maintenance Onboard Ships checklists to ensure vessels are safe, well-maintained and compliant with regulations. 14 Jan 2015
Class rises to new challenges of shipboard noise
Rising standards and expectations relating to crew habitability, occupational safety and passenger comfort have prompted closer attention to shipboard noise levels, as have considerations of the component damage that can result from excessive vibration, writes David Tinsley. 30 Sep 2011
New European head for ClassNK
ClassNK has officially announced the appointment of Dr M. Abdul Rahim to the role of regional manager in charge of the Society’s European and African operations. 07 Apr 2011
Class guidelines for shipboard wireless LAN systems
The growing possibilities for using electronic communication onboard ships have received a boost from ClassNK, which has produced some timely guidelines for shipboard wireless LAN (local area network) systems. 30 Nov 2010
Class NK establishes gas FPSO standards
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK) has published new Guidelines for Floating Offshore Facilities for LNG/LPG Production, Storage and Offloading, to address the variety of construction and survey requirements for floating gas facilities. 02 May 2011
ClassNK continues expansion
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK) has opened two new exclusive surveyor offices in St. Petersburg, Russia, and Colombo, Sri Lanka. 05 Jan 2011
ClassNK releases amendments to Class Rules
Tokyo-based classification society, ClassNK, has released an updated edition of its 'Rules and Guidance for the Survey and Construction of Steel Ships'. 27 Feb 2014
First approval issued for corrosion resistant steel for crude oil cargo tanks
Japanese classification society ClassNK says that it has issued the first type approval for corrosion resistant steel to the new NSGP-1 steel manufactured by Nippon Steel Corporation’s Oita Works. 27 Apr 2011
Bore extends use of ClassNK software
Finnish shipping company Bore has made a second order for ClassNK-NAPA’s Green ship efficiency software for installation on its 13,625dwt ro-ro vessel ‘Bore Song’ after successful sea trials aboard sister vessel ‘Bore Sea’. 10 Jun 2013
ClassNK tops 220m GT
Leading classification society ClassNK has announced that the ClassNK register topped 220 million gross tonnes for the first time at the end of November 2013. 05 Dec 2013
ClassNK approves lean duplex stainless steel
As demand for new technologies continues to rise, global classification society, ClassNK, has approved the first application of Nippon Steel and Sumikin Stainless Steel Corporation’s (NSSC) new lean duplex stainless steel (NSSC2120), on vessels in Japan. 27 Mar 2013
ClassNK establishes office in Cardiff
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK) announced the official opening of a new exclusive surveyor office in Cardiff, United Kingdom. 14 Jul 2010
ClassNK guidelines for NOx reduction
ClassNK has announced the launch of new guidelines for Selective Catalytic Systems (SCRs) and Redundant Agent Supply Systems for commercial vessels. 09 Nov 2011
Free emissions analysis software from Class NK
Japanese classification society ClassNK says it is helping improve the efficiency of international shipping with the release of its new environmental efficiency analysis software, PrimeShip-GREEN/EEOI. 01 Apr 2011
MOL looks in to containership safety
Mitsui OSK Lines (MOL) is looking to improve its safety standards following the ‘MOL Comfort’ incident, which occurred on 17 June 2013 in the Indian Ocean. 13 Aug 2013
ClassNK register reaches milestone
Chairman and president of classification society ClassNK, Noboru Ueda, recently announced that its register has exceeded the 8,000 ship milestone. 05 Oct 2012
Class society adds MLC to maritime consulting services
Japanese classification society ClassNK has begun offering a new consulting service for the International Labour Organization’s Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) 2006. 19 Apr 2011
ClassNK agreement with Mayanmar Government
Global classification society, ClassNK, has been granted authorisation to carry out statutory surveys on behalf of the Myanmar Government. 30 Apr 2013
ClassNK expands in Spain
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK) recently announced the opening of a new surveyor office in Ferrol, Spain. The new office becomes the sixth new office to be opened by the Society in 2010, and the third new office to be established by ClassNK in Europe this year. 28 Oct 2010
Class NK to develop ship maintenance software
Class NK, IHI Marine United (IHIMU), Diesel United (DU) and IBM Japan will be developing a ship maintenance management system to help reduce lifecycle cost. 13 Nov 2012
ClassNK commits $25 million to joint GHG reduction programme
ClassNK chairman and president Noboru Ueda has announced that ClassNK will commit 2.2 billion yen ($25 million) in research and funding as part of its participation in a national joint R&D program to reduce maritime greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 08 Mar 2010
‘MOL Comfort’ final report
Japanese classification society, ClassNK, has published the final report into the ‘MOL Comfort’ incident conducted by its Investigative Panel on Large Container Ship Safety. 02 Oct 2014
ClassNK updates EEDI verification tool
ClassNK has released the latest version of its PrimeShip-Green/MinPower software, developed earlier this year to help shipyard comply with amendments to MARPOL Annex VI. 23 Sep 2014
First CFRP propeller installation on merchant vessel
International classification society, ClassNK and Nakashima Propeller say they have installed ‘the world’s first’ carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) propeller on the main propulsion system of a merchant vessel. 01 Sep 2014
ClassNK issues new guidelines
A new set of guidelines has been issued by ClassNK to help shipyards safely and effectively make use of new duplex steels that are becoming popular in the construction of cargo tanks of chemical carriers. 16 Jan 2014
Record registrations for ClassNK
ClassNK registered 833 new vessels, a combined 21,466,272gt, in 2014 as it beat a global downturn in newbuild deliveries and secured record numbers of transfers from other class societies. 30 Jan 2015
Japan’s first LNG gas fuelled tugs
Classification society, ClassNK, has granted full type approval for the new 28AHX-DF dual-fuel engine built by Niigata Power Systems Co Ltd. 02 Feb 2015
Corrosion resistant steel approval
ClassNK has issued approval for Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation’s newly developed corrosion resistant steel (NSGP-2) for use on the upper deck and/or inner bottom of crude oil tanker cargo oil tanks (COT). 05 Feb 2015
ClassNK software integrates common structural rules
ClassNK has updates its ship design support software PrimeShip-Hull (HCSR), making it the first computer programme to reflect IACS’ Common Structural Rules (CSR) adopted in December 2014. 09 Feb 2015
ClassNK streamlines classification process
ClassNK has revamped its registration process, claiming to have halved the time it takes to deliver classification certificates. 13 Feb 2015
Ship technology collaboration
ClassNK and the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) have signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to collaboratively promote research and development and innovation in ship technology. 16 Feb 2015
ClassNK investigates brittle crack arrest design
ClassNK is to carry out joint research into preventing brittle fractures, aimed at improving safety standards for ultra-large container ships. 19 Feb 2015
ClassNK monitoring system for Makita MAN engines
ClassNK is to extend its condition-based engine monitoring system ClassNK CMAXS eGICSX to Mitsui-Makita MAN B&W main engines. 20 Feb 2015
Evergreen installs ClassNK-NAPA efficiency software
Evergreen Line is to install ClassNK-NAPA Green eco-efficiency software on its chartered container vessels, allowing shore-based teams to monitor, record and analyse real-time data from the charter fleet. 13 Apr 2015
ClassNK opens Cadiz survey office
Classification society ClassNK has opened a new survey office in Cadiz, Spain. 14 Apr 2015
ClassNK eco software on LNG carriers
Maritime software house NAPA and ClassNK are to install a jointly-designed new performance monitoring system onboard an Asian LNG carrier’s fleet. 06 May 2015
ClassNK released CNG Guidelines
ClassNK has released its ‘Guidelines for Compressed Natural Gas Carriers’, which provide safety requirements for the design and construction of CNG carriers. 04 Aug 2015
ClassNK to launch composite propeller guidelines
The first class society guidelines on composite propellers are to be published by ClassNK this month – a landmark recognition of the growing practical benefits of composite materials to the shipbuilding industry. 28 Aug 2015
First low-pressure EGR for bulk carrier
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha have installed the first low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system for a two-stroke diesel engine, onboard a 34,000dwt bulk carrier built by The Hakodate Dock Co. 02 Sep 2015
MOL tests energy-saving windshield
Mitsui OSK Lines has started demonstration tests on a new windshield for containerships that could reduce wind resistance, cutting fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. 03 Sep 2015
Condition-based engine monitoring
Leading Japanese classification society, ClassNK, has started verification tests of its next-generation condition-based engine monitoring system, the CMAXS e-GICSX, onboard a Mitsui O.S.K. Line (MOL) vessel. 12 Oct 2015